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Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility
KIT-Campus North

Building 440

H.-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1

76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany


phone: +49(721)608-23123

fax: +49(721)608-26273

knmf-userofficeMfl8∂kit edu

User Office

KNMF Profile

Deep X-Ray Lithography (XRL)

KNMF Laboratory for Micro- and Nanostructuring

Deep X-ray lithography uses synchrotron radiation to pattern thick PMMA layers (thickness: several microns up to several millimetres) in order to achieve high aspect ratio microstructures (aspect ratio up to 50). The structures are characterised by very steep sidewalls (slope angle better than 1 mrad) and sidewall roughness in the range of 20 to 30 nm. For optical applications usually microoptical benches with cylinder lenses, prisms and fixing structures for other optical components are fabricated. The structures are either used as prototypes, as lost form for metal replication or as moulds to fabricate mould inserts.

Download technology description (PDF)


Dr. Martin Börner

Phone +49 721 608-24437
Fax +49 721 608-24331
Email martin boernerZfl9∂kit edu

Dr. Jürgen Mohr

Phone +49 721 608-24433
Fax +49 721 608-24331
Email juergen mohrZer9∂kit edu

Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT) - www.imt.kit.edu


  • Aspect ratios up to 50
  • Structural height up to several millimetres
  • Structural details less than 1 μm
  • Slope angle better than 1 mrad


  • Only PMMA and SU8 (in case of prototyping)
  • Time consuming process for prototyping due to mask fabrication (4 to 6 weeks)

Design rules

  • Rounding of structural edges (radius > 5 μm)

Typical structures and designs

Figure 1

Fig. 1: 500 µm high PMMA structure (width of the small bar: 5 µm)


Figure 2

Fig. 2: Gear wheels and anchors made out of Au (99%) and Ni/Co alloy


Figure 3

Fig. 3: Crossed X-ray lenses (SU-8)


Figure 4

Fig. 4: Microoptical bench with cylindrical mirrors and fixing structures